Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is caused by deterioration of the retina and can severely impair vision and it can be treated with vitamins, laser therapy, medications, and vision aids. Macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe, irreversible vision loss in people over age 60. It occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates. The retina is the light-sensing nerve tissue at the back of the eye. Because the disease develops as a person ages, it is often referred to as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although macular degeneration is almost never a totally blinding condition, it can be a source of significant visual disability. Early signs of vision loss from AMD include shadowy areas in your central vision or unusually fuzzy or distorted vision.
An Amsler grid consists of straight lines, with a reference dot in the centre. Someone with macular degeneration may see some of the lines as wavy or blurred, with some dark areas at the centre. Another sign of AMD is the appearance of pigmentary changes under the retina. In addition to the pigmented cells in the iris (the coloured part of the eye), there are pigmented cells beneath the retina. As these cells break down and release their pigment, your eye care professional may see dark clumps of released pigment and later, areas that are less pigmented. Treatments with Anti-angiogenic drugs, Photodynamic laser therapy, Laser therapy, Submacular surgery, Retinal translocation can help cure macular degeneration. Currently, the most common and effective clinical treatment for wet Age-related Macular Degeneration is anti-VEGF therapy – which is periodic intravitreal (into the eye) injection of a chemical called an “anti-VEGF.”
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